G-0K8J8ZR168
검색
검색 팝업 닫기

Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords

Article

Split Viewer

Article

Curr. Opt. Photon. 2022; 6(4): 400-406

Published online August 25, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Copyright © Optical Society of Korea.

Spiking Suppression of Quasi-continuous-wave Pulse Nd:YAG Laser Based on Bias Pumping

Yazheng Chen1,2, Fuyong Wang3

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Sichuan University, Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610041, China
3School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China

Corresponding author: *jiaoyi@sjtu.edu.cn, ORCID 0000-0003-3122-4149

Received: February 3, 2022; Revised: April 28, 2022; Accepted: May 17, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We numerically demonstrate that the inherent spiking behavior in the quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) operation of an Nd:YAG laser can be suppressed by adopting bias pumping. After spiking suppression, the output QCW pulses from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser are very stable, and they can maintain nearly the same temporal shape as that of pump pulse under different pump repetition rates and peak powers. Our study implies that bias pumping is an alternative method of spiking suppression in solid-state lasers, and the application areas of an Nd:YAG laser may be extended by bias pumping.

Keywords: Bias pumping, Laser, Quasi-continuous-wave laser, Solid-state laser

OCIS codes: (140.3460) Lasers; (140.3538) Lasers, pulsed; (140.3580) Lasers, solid-state

The quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) pulse generated from an Nd:YAG laser has a wide range of applications in many fields. In industrial processing, the QCW laser pulse can form a unique melting and solidification process in the aimed material due to distinguishing thermal effects, which is different from a continuous-wave laser [13]. It is also pretty valuable for generating QCW laser at wavelengths of 532 nm, 355 nm, and 589 nm by frequency conversion [4, 5]. Additionally, it is a powerful tool in laser medicine: a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser can be applied in the treatment of onychomycosis [6, 7], for instance. Therefore, the high-power QCW Nd:YAG laser is highly anticipated due to its wide applications in many areas, and many studies on QCW Nd:YAG lasers have been carried out [813]. However, there is an issue that is yet to be solved about QCW: the QCW pulse is usually accompanied by chaotic relaxation spikes that are detrimental for certain applications [14]. As a result, spike suppression is essential for QCW generation in an Nd:YAG laser.

In order to remove the inherent spikes, both active and passive suppression methods have been developed in solid-state lasers. High-speed negative feedback is needed to add to the intracavity elements in active suppression. In passive suppression, an intracavity nonlinear crystal, such as potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and lithium triborate (LBO), is needed to effectively suppress spikes in the output by converting high-intensity laser spikes into second harmonic radiation [1517]. The intracavity nonlinear crystal provides an intensity-dependent nonlinear loss in the cavity, which effectively suppresses the spikes in the output. The problem is, however, that the cavity design is usually sophisticated both in active and passive suppression.

In previous work, we have numerically indicated that chaotic spiking phenomenon in pulse-pumped fiber lasers can be regulated by adopting the bias pumping technique [1820], in which the pumping power of a fiber laser consists of both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power with the same wavelength. We also recently demonstrated experimentally that a duration-controllable mid-infrared pulse can be produced from a bias-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser [21]. In this paper, we explore whether the bias-pumped method can be employed in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser to suppress the inherent spiking, which has rarely been reported before, and do numerical research. Specifically, we investigate the temporal characteristics of output pulse under different pump durations, repetition rates and peak powers in a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The results show that bias pumping is an alternative approach to suppress chaotic spiking in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser, and a stable output QCW pulse can be generated from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

A schematic diagram of the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a CW-laser diode and a pulsed laser diode serving as a pumping source. The lengths of the resonator and Nd:YAG are denoted by L and la, respectively. The optical length of the resonator can be calculated by the expression Le = L + (n − 1)la, where n represents the refractive index of Nd:YAG. The resonator mirror M1 is fully reflective at 1.064 µm, while M2 is an output coupler mirror. The power reflectivities (transmissions) of mirrors M1 and M2 are denoted by R1 and R2 (T1 and T2), respectively. The logarithmic losses per pass due to the mirror transmission are given by the expressions γ1 = −ln(1 − T1) and γ2 = −ln(1 − T2), respectively. In the cavity, an internal loss denoted by δ is assumed, and hence the logarithmic internal loss per pass can be expressed by γi = −ln(1 − δ). With those logarithmic loss notations, a total logarithmic loss per pass can be defined as γ = γi + (γ1 + γ2) / 2. And the lifetime of a cavity photon is given by  τc=Leγc, where c is the speed of light in vacuum.

Figure 1.Schematic representation of the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. F1 and F2, focus lens; M1, input mirror; M2, output mirror.

For simplicity, we assume the laser oscillates in the active medium in a single mode with the beam waist denoted by ω0. According to the notations above and laser theory, the rate equations of the Nd:YAG laser are as follows [22, 23]:

Ntt=RptcσϕtNtNtτ

ϕtt=laLecσNtϕtϕtτc+s

where N(t) is the population inversion density of the gain medium, and N0 is the total concentration of the active ions. ϕ represents the photon density inside the laser cavity, and s is the spontaneous emission rate. σ and τ are the stimulated emission cross section of the laser crystal and the lifetime of the upper laser level, respectively. The quantity Rp (t) is the volumetric pump rate into the upper laser level and is proportional to the total pump power Pcw + Ppulse (t), where Pcw and Ppulse (t) are the CW pump power and the pulsed pump power, respectively. The expression of Rp (t) can be given by

Rpt=ηpPcw +Ppulse thνP 2πωP2la1expαla

where, ηp is the pump quantum efficiency, and hνP is the pump photon energy. Both the CW pump and the pulsed pump are assumed to be a fundamental mode with spot size denoted by ωP at the entrance of the Nd:YAG crystal. α represents the absorption coefficient of the pump laser in the gain medium. The output power through mirror M2 is given by Pout=γ2 c2Le hνϕπω022Le, where hν is the laser photon energy.

In the following, we numerically simulate Eq. (1), Eq. (2), and Eq. (3) to analyze the QCW pulses generated in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The main parameters used in the simulation are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1 Main parameters used in the simulations

ParameterValue
λP808 nm
λs1064 nm
N01.38 × 1026 m−3
la10 mm
ω0150 μm
σ2.8 × 10−23 m2
τ230 μs
ασN0
L20 mm
n1.82

The long-pulse-pumped Nd:YAG laser will generally operate in a QCW mode with relaxation oscillation spikes in the output pulse. We first investigate the temporal characteristics of QCW pulses from the Nd:YAG laser pumped only by pulsed power with a Gaussian profile. In the QCW operation, the output laser is built up from noise and goes through a series of relaxation oscillations, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The simulation results in Fig. 2 indicate that the temporal profiles of output QCW pulses vary with the duration of pump pulses. Also, the peak values of the relaxation oscillations vary with the pump repetition rate, indicating that the pump repetition rate can also affect the temporal characteristics of the QCW outputs, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Therefore, the QCW output from the Nd:YAG laser pumped only by pulsed power is usually accompanied by a series of chaotic spikes, and the temporal characteristics of those spikes are sensitive to the pump pulse parameters.

Figure 2.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pulsed pump durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 3.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.

It is expected that the chaotic spikes in the output QCW pulses can be eliminated by adding a CW pump power. Meanwhile, the CW pump power should less than the threshold power of an Nd:YAG laser to prevent CW laser generation. The threshold power of an Nd:YAG laser can be estimated by the expression Pth=γηphνpτπω02+ωp22σ. In the following simulation, the CW pump power (40 mW) is kept slightly below the threshold power (~ 50 mW) of the Nd:YAG laser.

When the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a CW power and a pulsed power simultaneously, the simulation results, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, are different from those in Figs. 2 and 3. In Figs. 4 and 5, owing to the additional CW pump power (40 mW), the relaxation spikes in the output pulse disappear, and the output QCW pulse maintains the same temporal shape as that of the pump under those two different pump durations (depicted in Fig. 4) and different repetition rates (shown in Fig. 5). That is to say, the output QCW pulse becomes stable with bias pumping. Therefore, adopting the bias pumping method for an Nd:YAG laser is very effective to generate a stable QCW laser.

Figure 4.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump pulse durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 5.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under different pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.

As mentioned in our previous work [19], the temporal characteristics of an output laser have much to do with the temporal shape of the pump pulse. In general, chaotic spikes can be caused by steepening the temporal profile of the pump pulse. Whether a stable output can be created in a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a steeper pump profile is an issue worth studying. Accordingly, we simulate the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser pumped by a six-order super-Gaussian pulse with duration unchanged (50 µs), and the results are shown in Fig. 6. The output pulse stays stable under the six-order super-Gaussian pump pulse with a 2 kHz repetition rate, as demonstrated in Fig. 6(a). When the pump repetition rate increases to 5 kHz, the stable temporal shape of the output laser remains unchanged, as seen in Fig. 6(b), implying that the pump repetition rate has no influence on the temporal shape of a stable output pulse from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Also, the blue line in Fig. 6 representing population inversion density shows that N(t) is still clamped to its steady-state value during output pulse generation. Thus, the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser supports pulse generation of several tens-microsecond with a more practical pump pulse shape.

Figure 6.Temporal characteristics of the output laser when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW and a pulsed power, which has a six-order super-Gaussian profile, duration of 50 µs, repetition rates of (a) 2 kHz and (b) 5 kHz.

The peak power of the pump pulse is also a key factor that influences the temporal characteristics of the output pulse from the Nd:YAG laser. Keeping the six-order super-Gaussian pumping temporal shape and duration of 50 µs unchanged, the QCW pulses from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser are investigated under different peak powers of pump pulse. As seen in Fig. 7, no random spike occurs as the pumping peak power increases with a certain power (40 mW) bias. The output QCW pulse remains stable with a low CW power bias, even though the pumping peak power increases to a high value (200 W), as exhibited in Fig. 7. It indicates that increasing the peak power of the pump pulse does not lead to a chaotic spiking phenomenon of output QCW pulse from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The peak power of the output QCW pulse from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser increases linearly with that of the pump pulse at an arbitrary repetition rate, as shown in Fig. 8. Consequently, a stable QCW pulse with a high peak power can be produced in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser by increasing the peak power of the pump pulse.

Figure 7.With a 40 mW continuous-wave (CW) pump power bias, the temporal characteristics of output quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) pulses under the pumping pulses with peak powers of (a) 100 W and (b) 200 W, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs and repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 8.Variation of laser peak power with the pump peak power under 40 mW bias power at an arbitrary repetition rate.

We numerically demonstrate a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser that can generate QCW pulses without a spiking phenomenon. With a certain pumping power bias, relaxation spikes, which are ubiquitous in the QCW operation of an Nd:YAG laser, can be suppressed effectively. After spiking suppression, the output QCW pulses from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser turn out to be very stable: their temporal shapes are immune to the pump repetition rate and peak power. In addition, the QCW pulse produced in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser can maintain nearly the same temporal shape as that of a pump pulse with a square-like profile and high peak power. Therefore, our study implies that bias pumping is an alternative method of spiking suppression in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser, and adopting the bias pumping approach may extend the application areas of solid-state lasers in QCW mode due to output pulses with stable temporal profiles.

The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

  1. J. S. Kim, T. Watanabe, and Y. Yoshida, “Ultrasonic vibration aided laser welding of al alloys: improvement of laser welding quality,” J. Laser Appl. 7, 38-46 (1995).
    CrossRef
  2. P. S. Mohanty, A. Kar, and J. Mazumder, “A modeling study on the influence of pulse shaping on keyhole laser welding,” J. Laser Appl. 8, 291-297 (1996).
    CrossRef
  3. M. Sheikhi, F. M. Ghaini, M. J. Torkamany, and J. Sabbaghzadeh, “Characterisation of solidification cracking in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of 2024 aluminium alloy,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 14, 161-165 (2009).
    CrossRef
  4. J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219-2221 (2003).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Y. Lu, G. Fan, H. Ren, L. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Zhang, and M. Wan, “High-average-power narrow-line-width sum frequency generation 589 nm laser,” Proc. SPIE 9650, 965008 (2015).
  6. S. H. Moon, H. Hur, Y. J. Oh, K. H. Choi, J. E. Kim, J. Y. Ko, and Y. S. Ro, “Treatment of onychomycosis with a 1,064-nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 16, 165-170 (2014).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. E. H. Elmorsy, N. A. A. Khadr, A. A. A. Taha, and D. M. A. Aziz, “Long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser versus Q-switched Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser for treatment of onychomycosis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 52, 621-626 (2020).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. C. Y. Li, Y. Bo, B. S. Wang, C. Y. Tian, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, W. B. Liu, X. Q. Feng, and Y. B. Pan, “A kilowatt level diode-side-pumped QCW Nd:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 5145-5148 (2010).
    CrossRef
  9. J.-K. Zheng, Y. Bo, S.-Y. Xie, J.-W. Zuo, P.-Y. Wang, Y.-D. Guo, B.-L. Liu, Q.-J. Peng, D.-F. Cui, W.-Q. Lei, and Z.-Y. Xu, “High power quasi-continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier at 1319 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 074202 (2013).
    CrossRef
  10. R. Lera, F. Valle-Brozas, S. Torres-Peiró, A. R. dela Cruz, M. Galán, P. Bellido, M. Seimetz, J. M. Benlloch, and L. Roso, “Simulations of the gain profile and performance of a diode side-pumped QCW Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 55, 9573-9576 (2016).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. C. Guo, Q. Bian, C. Xu, J. Zuo, Y. Bo, Z. Wang, Y. Shen, N. Zong, H. Gao, Y. Liu, D. Cui, Q. Peng, and Z. Xu, “High-power high beam quality narrow-linewidth quasi-continuous wave microsecond pulse 1064-nm Nd:YAG amplifier,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1504908 (2016).
    CrossRef
  12. J. Yi, B. Tu, X. An, X. Ruan, J. Wu, H. Su, J. Shang, Y. Yu, Y. Liao, H. Cao, L. Cui, Q. Gao, and K. Zhang, “9 kilowatt-level direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG multi-module QCW laser,” Opt. Express 26, 13915-13926 (2018).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Y. Guo, Q. Peng, Y. Bo, Z. Chen, Y. Li, L. Zhang, C. Shao, L. Yuan, B. Wang, J. Xu, J. Xu, H. Gao, Y. Xu, B. Lai, C. Su, S. Ma, and T. Cheng, “24.6 kw near diffraction limit quasi-continuous-wave Nd:YAG slab laser based on a stable-unstable hybrid cavity,” Opt. Lett. 45, 1136-1139 (2020).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Q. Bian, Y. Bo, J.-W. Zuo, C. Guo, C. Xu, W. Tu, Y. Shen, N. Zong, L. Yuan, H.-W. Gao, Q.-J. Peng, H.-B. Chen, L. Feng, K. Jin, K. Wei, D.-F. Cui, S.-J. Xue, Y. -D. Zhang, and Z.-Y. Xu, “High-power QCW microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser with spiking suppression and D2b re-pumping,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1732-1735 (2016).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. T. H. Jeys, “Suppression of laser spiking by intracavity second harmonic generation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1011-1013 (1991).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. R. P. Johnson, “Spike suppression and longitudinal mode selection in a 1.319 µm Nd:YAG laser by high-efficiency intracavity frequency doubling,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 1078-1081 (2008).
    CrossRef
  17. Q. Bian, J.-W. Zuo, C. Guo, C. Xu, Y. Shen, N. Zong, Y. Bo, Q.-J. Peng, H.-B. Chen, D.-F. Cui, and Z.-Y. Xu, “Spiking suppression of high power QCW pulse 1319 nm Nd:YAG laser with different intracavity doublers,” Laser Phys. 26, 095005 (2016).
    CrossRef
  18. F. Wang, “Stable pulse generation in a bias-pumped gain-switched fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 231-236 (2018).
    CrossRef
  19. F. Wang, “A novel pulsed fiber laser: further study on the bias-pumped gain-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 085105 (2018).
    CrossRef
  20. F. Wang, “Pulsing mechanism based on power adiabatic evolution of pump in Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 30, 015102 (2020).
    CrossRef
  21. F. Wang, Z. Qin, J. Luo, X. Zhou, and B. Li, “Duration-controllable mid-infrared pulse from bias-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 32, 015102 (2022).
    CrossRef
  22. O. Svelto and D. C. Hanna, Principles of Lasers, 5th ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 319-338.
  23. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006), pp. 15-37.

Article

Article

Curr. Opt. Photon. 2022; 6(4): 400-406

Published online August 25, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Copyright © Optical Society of Korea.

Spiking Suppression of Quasi-continuous-wave Pulse Nd:YAG Laser Based on Bias Pumping

Yazheng Chen1,2, Fuyong Wang3

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Sichuan University, Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610041, China
3School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China

Correspondence to:*jiaoyi@sjtu.edu.cn, ORCID 0000-0003-3122-4149

Received: February 3, 2022; Revised: April 28, 2022; Accepted: May 17, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We numerically demonstrate that the inherent spiking behavior in the quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) operation of an Nd:YAG laser can be suppressed by adopting bias pumping. After spiking suppression, the output QCW pulses from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser are very stable, and they can maintain nearly the same temporal shape as that of pump pulse under different pump repetition rates and peak powers. Our study implies that bias pumping is an alternative method of spiking suppression in solid-state lasers, and the application areas of an Nd:YAG laser may be extended by bias pumping.

Keywords: Bias pumping, Laser, Quasi-continuous-wave laser, Solid-state laser

I. INTRODUCTION

The quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) pulse generated from an Nd:YAG laser has a wide range of applications in many fields. In industrial processing, the QCW laser pulse can form a unique melting and solidification process in the aimed material due to distinguishing thermal effects, which is different from a continuous-wave laser [13]. It is also pretty valuable for generating QCW laser at wavelengths of 532 nm, 355 nm, and 589 nm by frequency conversion [4, 5]. Additionally, it is a powerful tool in laser medicine: a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser can be applied in the treatment of onychomycosis [6, 7], for instance. Therefore, the high-power QCW Nd:YAG laser is highly anticipated due to its wide applications in many areas, and many studies on QCW Nd:YAG lasers have been carried out [813]. However, there is an issue that is yet to be solved about QCW: the QCW pulse is usually accompanied by chaotic relaxation spikes that are detrimental for certain applications [14]. As a result, spike suppression is essential for QCW generation in an Nd:YAG laser.

In order to remove the inherent spikes, both active and passive suppression methods have been developed in solid-state lasers. High-speed negative feedback is needed to add to the intracavity elements in active suppression. In passive suppression, an intracavity nonlinear crystal, such as potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and lithium triborate (LBO), is needed to effectively suppress spikes in the output by converting high-intensity laser spikes into second harmonic radiation [1517]. The intracavity nonlinear crystal provides an intensity-dependent nonlinear loss in the cavity, which effectively suppresses the spikes in the output. The problem is, however, that the cavity design is usually sophisticated both in active and passive suppression.

In previous work, we have numerically indicated that chaotic spiking phenomenon in pulse-pumped fiber lasers can be regulated by adopting the bias pumping technique [1820], in which the pumping power of a fiber laser consists of both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power with the same wavelength. We also recently demonstrated experimentally that a duration-controllable mid-infrared pulse can be produced from a bias-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser [21]. In this paper, we explore whether the bias-pumped method can be employed in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser to suppress the inherent spiking, which has rarely been reported before, and do numerical research. Specifically, we investigate the temporal characteristics of output pulse under different pump durations, repetition rates and peak powers in a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The results show that bias pumping is an alternative approach to suppress chaotic spiking in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser, and a stable output QCW pulse can be generated from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

Ⅱ. MODEL OF QCW Nd:YAG LASER

A schematic diagram of the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a CW-laser diode and a pulsed laser diode serving as a pumping source. The lengths of the resonator and Nd:YAG are denoted by L and la, respectively. The optical length of the resonator can be calculated by the expression Le = L + (n − 1)la, where n represents the refractive index of Nd:YAG. The resonator mirror M1 is fully reflective at 1.064 µm, while M2 is an output coupler mirror. The power reflectivities (transmissions) of mirrors M1 and M2 are denoted by R1 and R2 (T1 and T2), respectively. The logarithmic losses per pass due to the mirror transmission are given by the expressions γ1 = −ln(1 − T1) and γ2 = −ln(1 − T2), respectively. In the cavity, an internal loss denoted by δ is assumed, and hence the logarithmic internal loss per pass can be expressed by γi = −ln(1 − δ). With those logarithmic loss notations, a total logarithmic loss per pass can be defined as γ = γi + (γ1 + γ2) / 2. And the lifetime of a cavity photon is given by  τc=Leγc, where c is the speed of light in vacuum.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. F1 and F2, focus lens; M1, input mirror; M2, output mirror.

For simplicity, we assume the laser oscillates in the active medium in a single mode with the beam waist denoted by ω0. According to the notations above and laser theory, the rate equations of the Nd:YAG laser are as follows [22, 23]:

Ntt=RptcσϕtNtNtτ

ϕtt=laLecσNtϕtϕtτc+s

where N(t) is the population inversion density of the gain medium, and N0 is the total concentration of the active ions. ϕ represents the photon density inside the laser cavity, and s is the spontaneous emission rate. σ and τ are the stimulated emission cross section of the laser crystal and the lifetime of the upper laser level, respectively. The quantity Rp (t) is the volumetric pump rate into the upper laser level and is proportional to the total pump power Pcw + Ppulse (t), where Pcw and Ppulse (t) are the CW pump power and the pulsed pump power, respectively. The expression of Rp (t) can be given by

Rpt=ηpPcw +Ppulse thνP 2πωP2la1expαla

where, ηp is the pump quantum efficiency, and hνP is the pump photon energy. Both the CW pump and the pulsed pump are assumed to be a fundamental mode with spot size denoted by ωP at the entrance of the Nd:YAG crystal. α represents the absorption coefficient of the pump laser in the gain medium. The output power through mirror M2 is given by Pout=γ2 c2Le hνϕπω022Le, where hν is the laser photon energy.

In the following, we numerically simulate Eq. (1), Eq. (2), and Eq. (3) to analyze the QCW pulses generated in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The main parameters used in the simulation are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1. Main parameters used in the simulations.

ParameterValue
λP808 nm
λs1064 nm
N01.38 × 1026 m−3
la10 mm
ω0150 μm
σ2.8 × 10−23 m2
τ230 μs
ασN0
L20 mm
n1.82

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The long-pulse-pumped Nd:YAG laser will generally operate in a QCW mode with relaxation oscillation spikes in the output pulse. We first investigate the temporal characteristics of QCW pulses from the Nd:YAG laser pumped only by pulsed power with a Gaussian profile. In the QCW operation, the output laser is built up from noise and goes through a series of relaxation oscillations, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The simulation results in Fig. 2 indicate that the temporal profiles of output QCW pulses vary with the duration of pump pulses. Also, the peak values of the relaxation oscillations vary with the pump repetition rate, indicating that the pump repetition rate can also affect the temporal characteristics of the QCW outputs, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Therefore, the QCW output from the Nd:YAG laser pumped only by pulsed power is usually accompanied by a series of chaotic spikes, and the temporal characteristics of those spikes are sensitive to the pump pulse parameters.

Figure 2. Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pulsed pump durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 3. Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.

It is expected that the chaotic spikes in the output QCW pulses can be eliminated by adding a CW pump power. Meanwhile, the CW pump power should less than the threshold power of an Nd:YAG laser to prevent CW laser generation. The threshold power of an Nd:YAG laser can be estimated by the expression Pth=γηphνpτπω02+ωp22σ. In the following simulation, the CW pump power (40 mW) is kept slightly below the threshold power (~ 50 mW) of the Nd:YAG laser.

When the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a CW power and a pulsed power simultaneously, the simulation results, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, are different from those in Figs. 2 and 3. In Figs. 4 and 5, owing to the additional CW pump power (40 mW), the relaxation spikes in the output pulse disappear, and the output QCW pulse maintains the same temporal shape as that of the pump under those two different pump durations (depicted in Fig. 4) and different repetition rates (shown in Fig. 5). That is to say, the output QCW pulse becomes stable with bias pumping. Therefore, adopting the bias pumping method for an Nd:YAG laser is very effective to generate a stable QCW laser.

Figure 4. Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump pulse durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 5. Temporal characteristics of output pulses under different pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.

As mentioned in our previous work [19], the temporal characteristics of an output laser have much to do with the temporal shape of the pump pulse. In general, chaotic spikes can be caused by steepening the temporal profile of the pump pulse. Whether a stable output can be created in a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a steeper pump profile is an issue worth studying. Accordingly, we simulate the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser pumped by a six-order super-Gaussian pulse with duration unchanged (50 µs), and the results are shown in Fig. 6. The output pulse stays stable under the six-order super-Gaussian pump pulse with a 2 kHz repetition rate, as demonstrated in Fig. 6(a). When the pump repetition rate increases to 5 kHz, the stable temporal shape of the output laser remains unchanged, as seen in Fig. 6(b), implying that the pump repetition rate has no influence on the temporal shape of a stable output pulse from a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Also, the blue line in Fig. 6 representing population inversion density shows that N(t) is still clamped to its steady-state value during output pulse generation. Thus, the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser supports pulse generation of several tens-microsecond with a more practical pump pulse shape.

Figure 6. Temporal characteristics of the output laser when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW and a pulsed power, which has a six-order super-Gaussian profile, duration of 50 µs, repetition rates of (a) 2 kHz and (b) 5 kHz.

The peak power of the pump pulse is also a key factor that influences the temporal characteristics of the output pulse from the Nd:YAG laser. Keeping the six-order super-Gaussian pumping temporal shape and duration of 50 µs unchanged, the QCW pulses from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser are investigated under different peak powers of pump pulse. As seen in Fig. 7, no random spike occurs as the pumping peak power increases with a certain power (40 mW) bias. The output QCW pulse remains stable with a low CW power bias, even though the pumping peak power increases to a high value (200 W), as exhibited in Fig. 7. It indicates that increasing the peak power of the pump pulse does not lead to a chaotic spiking phenomenon of output QCW pulse from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The peak power of the output QCW pulse from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser increases linearly with that of the pump pulse at an arbitrary repetition rate, as shown in Fig. 8. Consequently, a stable QCW pulse with a high peak power can be produced in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser by increasing the peak power of the pump pulse.

Figure 7. With a 40 mW continuous-wave (CW) pump power bias, the temporal characteristics of output quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) pulses under the pumping pulses with peak powers of (a) 100 W and (b) 200 W, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs and repetition rate at 2 kHz.

Figure 8. Variation of laser peak power with the pump peak power under 40 mW bias power at an arbitrary repetition rate.

IV. CONCLUSION

We numerically demonstrate a bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser that can generate QCW pulses without a spiking phenomenon. With a certain pumping power bias, relaxation spikes, which are ubiquitous in the QCW operation of an Nd:YAG laser, can be suppressed effectively. After spiking suppression, the output QCW pulses from the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser turn out to be very stable: their temporal shapes are immune to the pump repetition rate and peak power. In addition, the QCW pulse produced in the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser can maintain nearly the same temporal shape as that of a pump pulse with a square-like profile and high peak power. Therefore, our study implies that bias pumping is an alternative method of spiking suppression in the QCW operation of a solid-state laser, and adopting the bias pumping approach may extend the application areas of solid-state lasers in QCW mode due to output pulses with stable temporal profiles.

DISCLOSURES

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

DATA AVAILABILITY

No data were generated or analyzed in the presented research.

FUNDING

The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Schematic representation of the bias-pumped Nd:YAG laser. F1 and F2, focus lens; M1, input mirror; M2, output mirror.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pulsed pump durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 4.

Figure 4.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under pump pulse durations of (a) 50 µs and (b) 70 µs, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump repetition rate at 2 kHz.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 5.

Figure 5.Temporal characteristics of output pulses under different pump repetition rates of (a) 1 kHz and (b) 5 kHz, when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a pulsed power and a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 6.

Figure 6.Temporal characteristics of the output laser when the Nd:YAG laser is pumped by both a continuous-wave (CW) power bias of 40 mW and a pulsed power, which has a six-order super-Gaussian profile, duration of 50 µs, repetition rates of (a) 2 kHz and (b) 5 kHz.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 7.

Figure 7.With a 40 mW continuous-wave (CW) pump power bias, the temporal characteristics of output quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) pulses under the pumping pulses with peak powers of (a) 100 W and (b) 200 W, fixing the pump duration at 50 µs and repetition rate at 2 kHz.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

Fig 8.

Figure 8.Variation of laser peak power with the pump peak power under 40 mW bias power at an arbitrary repetition rate.
Current Optics and Photonics 2022; 6: 400-406https://doi.org/10.3807/COPP.2022.6.4.400

TABLE 1 Main parameters used in the simulations

ParameterValue
λP808 nm
λs1064 nm
N01.38 × 1026 m−3
la10 mm
ω0150 μm
σ2.8 × 10−23 m2
τ230 μs
ασN0
L20 mm
n1.82

References

  1. J. S. Kim, T. Watanabe, and Y. Yoshida, “Ultrasonic vibration aided laser welding of al alloys: improvement of laser welding quality,” J. Laser Appl. 7, 38-46 (1995).
    CrossRef
  2. P. S. Mohanty, A. Kar, and J. Mazumder, “A modeling study on the influence of pulse shaping on keyhole laser welding,” J. Laser Appl. 8, 291-297 (1996).
    CrossRef
  3. M. Sheikhi, F. M. Ghaini, M. J. Torkamany, and J. Sabbaghzadeh, “Characterisation of solidification cracking in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of 2024 aluminium alloy,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 14, 161-165 (2009).
    CrossRef
  4. J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219-2221 (2003).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Y. Lu, G. Fan, H. Ren, L. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Zhang, and M. Wan, “High-average-power narrow-line-width sum frequency generation 589 nm laser,” Proc. SPIE 9650, 965008 (2015).
  6. S. H. Moon, H. Hur, Y. J. Oh, K. H. Choi, J. E. Kim, J. Y. Ko, and Y. S. Ro, “Treatment of onychomycosis with a 1,064-nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 16, 165-170 (2014).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. E. H. Elmorsy, N. A. A. Khadr, A. A. A. Taha, and D. M. A. Aziz, “Long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser versus Q-switched Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser for treatment of onychomycosis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 52, 621-626 (2020).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. C. Y. Li, Y. Bo, B. S. Wang, C. Y. Tian, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, W. B. Liu, X. Q. Feng, and Y. B. Pan, “A kilowatt level diode-side-pumped QCW Nd:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 5145-5148 (2010).
    CrossRef
  9. J.-K. Zheng, Y. Bo, S.-Y. Xie, J.-W. Zuo, P.-Y. Wang, Y.-D. Guo, B.-L. Liu, Q.-J. Peng, D.-F. Cui, W.-Q. Lei, and Z.-Y. Xu, “High power quasi-continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier at 1319 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 074202 (2013).
    CrossRef
  10. R. Lera, F. Valle-Brozas, S. Torres-Peiró, A. R. dela Cruz, M. Galán, P. Bellido, M. Seimetz, J. M. Benlloch, and L. Roso, “Simulations of the gain profile and performance of a diode side-pumped QCW Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 55, 9573-9576 (2016).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. C. Guo, Q. Bian, C. Xu, J. Zuo, Y. Bo, Z. Wang, Y. Shen, N. Zong, H. Gao, Y. Liu, D. Cui, Q. Peng, and Z. Xu, “High-power high beam quality narrow-linewidth quasi-continuous wave microsecond pulse 1064-nm Nd:YAG amplifier,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1504908 (2016).
    CrossRef
  12. J. Yi, B. Tu, X. An, X. Ruan, J. Wu, H. Su, J. Shang, Y. Yu, Y. Liao, H. Cao, L. Cui, Q. Gao, and K. Zhang, “9 kilowatt-level direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG multi-module QCW laser,” Opt. Express 26, 13915-13926 (2018).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Y. Guo, Q. Peng, Y. Bo, Z. Chen, Y. Li, L. Zhang, C. Shao, L. Yuan, B. Wang, J. Xu, J. Xu, H. Gao, Y. Xu, B. Lai, C. Su, S. Ma, and T. Cheng, “24.6 kw near diffraction limit quasi-continuous-wave Nd:YAG slab laser based on a stable-unstable hybrid cavity,” Opt. Lett. 45, 1136-1139 (2020).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Q. Bian, Y. Bo, J.-W. Zuo, C. Guo, C. Xu, W. Tu, Y. Shen, N. Zong, L. Yuan, H.-W. Gao, Q.-J. Peng, H.-B. Chen, L. Feng, K. Jin, K. Wei, D.-F. Cui, S.-J. Xue, Y. -D. Zhang, and Z.-Y. Xu, “High-power QCW microsecond-pulse solid-state sodium beacon laser with spiking suppression and D2b re-pumping,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1732-1735 (2016).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. T. H. Jeys, “Suppression of laser spiking by intracavity second harmonic generation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1011-1013 (1991).
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. R. P. Johnson, “Spike suppression and longitudinal mode selection in a 1.319 µm Nd:YAG laser by high-efficiency intracavity frequency doubling,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 1078-1081 (2008).
    CrossRef
  17. Q. Bian, J.-W. Zuo, C. Guo, C. Xu, Y. Shen, N. Zong, Y. Bo, Q.-J. Peng, H.-B. Chen, D.-F. Cui, and Z.-Y. Xu, “Spiking suppression of high power QCW pulse 1319 nm Nd:YAG laser with different intracavity doublers,” Laser Phys. 26, 095005 (2016).
    CrossRef
  18. F. Wang, “Stable pulse generation in a bias-pumped gain-switched fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 231-236 (2018).
    CrossRef
  19. F. Wang, “A novel pulsed fiber laser: further study on the bias-pumped gain-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 085105 (2018).
    CrossRef
  20. F. Wang, “Pulsing mechanism based on power adiabatic evolution of pump in Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 30, 015102 (2020).
    CrossRef
  21. F. Wang, Z. Qin, J. Luo, X. Zhou, and B. Li, “Duration-controllable mid-infrared pulse from bias-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 32, 015102 (2022).
    CrossRef
  22. O. Svelto and D. C. Hanna, Principles of Lasers, 5th ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 319-338.
  23. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006), pp. 15-37.